...lunar eclipses are caused by the waters above as well. The reddish color of the Moon during a lunar eclipse is, like all colors in the sky, the result of a refraction of light by the waters above. During a lunar eclipse, the Moon appears reddish from any vantage point within its light body, even when it is in the zenith. Moreover, the Moon turns red everywhere simultaneously. The umbra of the Sun plays the key role in the red coloring of the Moon during a lunar eclipse.
Both, the Sun and the Moon have an umbra. The umbra is the most outer section of the light body which is slowed down by the waters above the most as it has the sharpest entering angle. However, the red coloration of the Moon during a lunar eclipse is not the result of a refraction of moonlight, but the result of an interaction between the umbra of the Sun and the umbra of the Moon.
As the umbra of the Sun intersects the Moon's light body, it mobilizes the affected section and causes it to vibrate at the same frequency and turn red. A lunar eclipse occurs when the outlines of the Moon's light body and the umbra of the Sun align over the entire length of their light bodies. This occurs when the Moon and the Sun are over opposite sides of the equator and form identical “light waves” along the given Foundation of Heaven. Let's say, the Sun rises over the latitude N17°, and the Moon rises over the latitude S17°. In this case, both will form nearly identical light waves opposing each other.
In picture above, the Sun and the Moon form identical sine waves opposing each other. This is the basic requirement for a lunar eclipse to occur. The speed of the Sun exceeds that of the Moon by approximately 60 km/h and the Sun overtakes the Moon. At some point, their light bodies “lock in” with their outlines precisely overlapping. As their outlines begin to overlap, the Moon begins to turn red from one side to the other until it's covered in red throughout its entire circumference. During a lunar eclipse, the Moon appears red from any vantage point within its light body.
The Sun and the Moon traveling from east to west with their light bodies opposing each other. The Sun is traveling faster than the Moon and the umbra of the Sun is about to overlap the outlines of the Moon's light body. At this point, the Moon is not yet turning red...
The Sun's umbra and the outlines of the Moon's light body precisely overlap. The low frequency of the Sun's umbra causes the entire light body of the Moon to vibrate at the same frequency. As a result, the Moon turns red.
Last picture: The Sun is traveling approximately 59 km/h faster than the Moon and the outlines of their light bodies begin to disconnect. The red color retreats from one side to the other. The Moon takes on its normal color and the eclipse ends.
All types of lunar eclipses, including partial eclipses, occur when the outlines of the light bodies of Sun and Moon overlap. The difference between the different types of eclipses is the degree to which the outlines overlap. During a partial eclipse, for example, the Sun and the Moon are not opposing each other over equivalent latitudes and, therefore, form light bodies that do not overlap precisely as they do during a total lunar eclipse. During a partial eclipse, only a part of the Moon's light body interacts the umbra of the Sun.